The type of grass cultivated on putting greens has a significant influence on playability and strategy. Bentgrass provides an ideal smooth, fast surface for rolling putts in northern climates, while Bermuda grass and other southern varieties present grain and texture issues that can grab clubheads and alter speed. Other varieties like Poa Annua, a ubiquitous invasive weed grass, can produce nice rolling early greens but tend to struggle in heat leading to bumpier late day play, while links golf and courses where the greens are laid over sand are Fesuce.
This Golf 101 article examines how grass characteristics like seasonal growth, mowing height, blade texture, time of day and grain direction affect pace and break on the greens. We will contrast grasses such as classic northern Bentgrass with courser southern Bermudagrass, transitional grasses like Poa Annua, and fine Fescues. Understanding these fine differences helps golfers read greens and adjust approach shots and putting lines accordingly.
We’ll also look at how grain impacts speed, break, and visual appearance of the green. It can change during the day with sunlight angle. You can best read it by color variation and touch checks before putting. Learning to read grain makes a big difference for skilled players putting on grainy Bermuda greens..
Bentgrass produces smooth, fast greens that allow for true putts and consistent ball roll thanks to its fine leaf texture and vertical growth habit, which facilitates very low mowing heights under 0.125 inches. This minimizes friction between the ball and grass blades. The uniform texture and density of bentgrass greens also gives putts a consistent pace across the surface. Bentgrass greens hold lines well due to the grass’ lack of grain when properly managed, though extra moisture can soften greens and hamper smoothness.
Bentgrass performs best in cool, humid climates with moderate temperatures and ample rainfall, as found in the northeast U.S., coastal northwest, and northern Europe. It tolerates cold winters but struggles in hot, humid summers, requiring substantial irrigation, fans, and other measures to mitigate heat stress. Transition zone climates provide marginal growing conditions, while southern regions demand intensive management for bentgrass survival during summer. Courses below the transition zone often maintain bentgrass greens in summer and overseeded ryegrass or Poa trivialis greens for winter.
Bermudagrass greens thrive in warm climates and can provide very fast, consistent speeds when properly maintained. The dense, thick-bladed canopy allows for tight mowing heights under 0.125 inches with minimal leaf resistance. This ultra-low cutting height reduces friction for faster greens speeds. However, subtle differences in nutrient and moisture levels can impact consistency across bermudagrass greens.
Bermudagrass produces relatively smooth ball rolls thanks to its horizontal growth habit. However, its thick blades can cause some visible “grain” in putts, requiring adjustment for proper reads. Extra moisture softens greens, slowing speeds while also hampering smoothness. Bermudagrass greens generally hold lines fairly well when dry.
Bermudagrass is best suited to tropical and subtropical climates with high temperatures, mild winters, and moderate rainfall. It goes dormant after the first frost but remains hardy even in cold winters. Transition zone climates provide marginal growing conditions for bermudagrass. Courses often overseed bermudagrass greens with ryegrass or Poa trivialis to maintain winter play.
Poa annua greens can provide fast speeds when maintained properly, as the grass tolerates very low mowing heights. However, Poa’s prolific seedheads and blending of biotypes can cause subtle differences in speed and consistency across a green.
Poa annua tends to produce relatively smooth rolls thanks to its fine leaf texture. But seedheads reduce uniformity, while its lime green color stands out from other grasses. Poa also shows some visible “grain” in putts that golfers must account for.
Poa thrives in cool, moist climates and struggles with heat stress above 90°F. It goes dormant after first frost but remains hardy in winter. Courses in warm climates often overseed Poa greens with ryegrass or other grasses to maintain winter play.
Properly managed Poa annua can provide high-quality greens, though challenges exist. Poa is more traffic tolerant than other grasses and thrives in shade, often dominating greens over time. But it requires intensive maintenance to control seedheads, biotypes, and inconsistencies affecting playability. Many top courses feature Poa greens, but playability varies day to day based on upkeep and weather impacts on the grass.
Fescues are cool-season grasses best suited to northern climates, performing well in areas like the northern United States and northern Europe. They tolerate cold winters but may struggle in hot, humid summer conditions unlike bentgrass greens which prefer more moderate summertime temperatures. Fine fescues are well-suited for seaside links courses due to good drought tolerance and ability to thrive in sandy, low fertility soils.
In terms of playability, fine fescue greens can provide good speeds and relatively smooth ball roll when properly maintained, though they generally play slower than bentgrass surfaces. Visually, the lime green color of fine fescue stands out from other turfgrasses on the course. Fine fescue greens also exhibit minimal grain so players need not account for much break on properly hit putts. However, their relatively low wear tolerance means traffic from golfers and maintenance equipment should be managed to prevent excessive damage.
A major advantage of fine fescue greens is reduced input requirements compared to bentgrass and other options. When climate and expectations align, fine fescues can offer an eco-friendly, quality putting surface requiring fewer inputs than typical golf course grasses.
The grain on the green refers to the direction that the blades of grass grow. All greens have grain, though it may not be visible on very short, fast Bentgrass greens. The best way to identify the grain is by looking for shading differences – the grass will appear darker when you look into the grain and lighter when looking downgrain, with the grass growing toward or away from you respectively.
Bermuda greens feature more grain, seen visually as light and dark patches, requiring compensation in aim. Grain also grows downhill, so gravity indicators like nearby bunkers indicate likely grain direction. Poa annua greens can vary greatly in graininess. In early spring when Poa seed heads emerge, temporary graininess occurs. And the many Poa subspecies that can be mixed on the same green, some more grainy than others, leads to inconsistent surfaces. So factoring grain on Poa becomes even more hit or miss. When present, grain on Poa tends to run downhill following drainage and affects speed and break like on Bermuda.
Fescue greens play very true, with grain impacting speed and break much less than Bermuda or Poa. Bentgrass greens have very little grain due to the vertical growth pattern of the grass blades. As a result, they roll more consistent in terms of speed and break compared to Bermuda – you can generally trust the read of the slope and contours. Bentgrass also benefits from being cut very short, often under 1/8 inch, further reducing grain influence while increasing green speed.
Reading greens is a critical skill in golf. Reading greens effectively is a critical part of scoring well in golf. Properly reading the subtle contours and slopes of the putting surface allows a golfer to accurately judge the break and speed needed to sink putts. Being able to consistently read greens separates the best putters and low scorers from their playing partners or the rest of the field.
As you walk around the green, look for slopes, ridges, or tiers that will affect how a putt breaks. Also check if the green slopes back-to-front or side-to-side. The slope and contours of a green have the greatest influence on the break of putts. On most modern greens built with significant undulation, putts break downhill following gravity regardless of grass type. Older greens tending to slope front-to-back or with the general lay of the land also predominantly break downhill.
Determine an aim point using the hole as a backdrop – pick an intermediate target in the path you want the ball to travel. Adjust your aim point based on grain as needed. After hitting the putt, watch its path closely to calibrate your read for next time. While some putts will always be difficult, building this green reading skill through observation is a key to lowering scores and giving yourself the best chance on each stroke.
You can also look at the edge of the hole – one side will be clean cut where the grass grows away, while the other side will be more ragged. When putting into the grain, the ball reacts more severely to mishits and can jump off line quickly. Downgrain putts are more forgiving. Being aware of the grain and accounting for it intuitively over time can significantly improve your putting. Grain direction can even vary at different times of day as the angle of sunlight changes. So reading grain properly requires checking it right before you putt.
Sand and Golf
by George Waters
Summary: “Sand and Golf” explores how sandy terrain uniquely suits golf, studying similarities and differences between courses worldwide with sandy features. It examines all aspects of the relationship between sand and golf, from the sport’s origins in Scottish coastal dunes to its global spread onto sandy sites. Written by golf architect George Waters with a preface by renowned designer Tom Doak, it details through examples and illustrations why firm, rugged, windy sandy terrain makes creative shot-making integral to the game. The book appeals to knowledgeable golfers interested in course design and architecture, analyzing the art and science behind why golf belongs on sand.
The Art of Scoring
by Stan Utley
Summary: The Art of Scoring shows readers how to understand the way their short game handicap and overall skill level should dictate strategy. Breaking down pitching, chipping, bunker play, and putting into three proficiency categories, Utley presents customized techniques for saving shots simply by making better decisions. He leads us through a round with three amateurs?two 10-handicappers and a 20-handicapper?to show how improved strategy and execution can transform a player?s game. With behind- thescenes pro teaching sessions, crash courses on the three hardest greenside shots, and one hundred black-and-white and color photographs, The Art of Scoring is like getting a brand-new set of state-of-the-art clubs, customized by one of the game’s premier teachers.
Anatomy of a Golf Course
by Tom Doak
Summary: The book explains the thought process and strategies used by golf course architects in designing courses, including factors like hole length, placement of hazards, and routing. It aims to help golfers understand why certain design choices are made so they can better approach playing the course. Written by acclaimed golf architect Tom Doak, it appeals to both knowledgeable golfers and beginners interested in course design and architecture. The book also includes an appendix with examples of noteworthy golf courses that are worth studying.
Classic Golf Links
by Donald Steel
Summary: Classic Golf Links of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland by Donald Steele is a guidebook featuring 75 spectacular links golf courses in the British Isles, covering their history, design, and challenges. The book includes scorecards, hole maps, photos, and playing tips for each course, providing key information for golf travelers while celebrating these revered seaside tests. With writing by Donald Steel and photos by Brian Morgan, Classic Golf Links is considered an essential reference for experiencing the best of links golf.
This book is a must for anyone with an affinity for links golf. I bought this book years ago and still return to it often. The pictures are amazing and they alone will make you fall in love with these courses.
The Nature of the Game
by Mike Keiser
Summary: The Nature of the Game chronicles how businessman and avid golfer Mike Keiser discovered his passion for authentic links golf in Scotland and Ireland and embarked on a mission to bring that pure golf experience to America through Bandon Dunes. Keiser details his philosophy of “dream golf” – walking-only courses routed naturally through windswept landscapes that embrace the origins of the game. The book provides an inside look at how Keiser partnered with architects like Tom Doak to make the dream golf vision a reality at Bandon and other sites, pioneering a back-to-basics movement in course design. At its core, The Nature of the Game shares one man’s journey to recapture golf’s essence by creating minimalist, natural links-style courses focused on fun and camaraderie.